General Urinalysis


General Urinalysis

A general urinalysis is a diagnostic test that involves analyzing the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine. It is a common and valuable tool in assessing overall health, diagnosing various medical conditions, and monitoring treatment effectiveness. Here are the key components of a general urinalysis:

Physical Examination:

Color: The color of urine can provide information about hydration and the presence of certain substances. Normal urine color ranges from pale yellow to amber.

Clarity: Normal urine is clear. Cloudiness may indicate the presence of particles, such as cells, bacteria, or crystals.

Chemical Examination:

pH Level: The acidity or alkalinity of urine. Normal pH ranges from 4.5 to 8.0.

Specific Gravity: A measure of urine concentration. It reflects the kidney’s ability to concentrate or dilute urine. Normal values are typically between 1.005 and 1.030.

Glucose: The presence of glucose may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Protein: Detects protein in urine, which may suggest kidney disease.

Ketones: Presence may indicate abnormal metabolism, such as in uncontrolled diabetes or fasting.

Bilirubin: The presence of bilirubin in urine may suggest liver disease or hemolysis.

Microscopic Examination:

Red Blood Cells (RBCs): The presence of RBCs may indicate kidney disease, urinary tract infections, or other conditions.

White Blood Cells (WBCs): Elevated levels may suggest infection or inflammation in the urinary tract.

Casts: Tube-shaped structures formed in the kidneys that can indicate kidney disease.

Crystals: The presence of crystals may suggest kidney stones or other metabolic disorders.

Microbial Examination:

Bacteria: The presence of bacteria may indicate a urinary tract infection.

Additional Tests (if indicated):

Urobilinogen: Elevated levels may indicate liver disease or hemolysis.

Nitrites: The presence of nitrites may suggest a bacterial infection.

A healthcare provider may order a urinalysis for various reasons, including routine check-ups, monitoring certain medical conditions, investigating symptoms like frequent urination or pain, or assessing kidney function. It is a non-invasive and valuable tool that can provide insights into the body’s health and aid in the diagnosis of a wide range of conditions.

Sample Requirement: Urine ≥ 30ml in sterile urine container

**Patients are adviced to collect midstream urine sample to prevent contamination which can cause false positive results.