Blood Grouping


Blood Grouping

Blood grouping, also known as blood typing, is a process of determining an individual’s blood group based on the presence or absence of specific antigens on the surface of red blood cells. The most commonly used blood typing system is the ABO system, which categorizes blood into four main groups: A, B, AB, and O. Additionally, the Rh factor (Rh-positive or Rh-negative) is considered, resulting in eight possible blood types.

Blood grouping is essential for various medical procedures, including blood transfusions, organ transplants, and pregnancy care. Compatibility between the donor’s and recipient’s blood types is crucial to prevent adverse reactions. For example, a person with blood type A should ideally receive blood from a donor with type A or O and should avoid type B or AB blood.

Blood grouping is usually determined through a simple blood test. Laboratory technicians mix a small sample of the individual’s blood with specific antibodies that react with the A and B antigens, along with anti-Rh antibodies if necessary. The reactions observed help identify the individual’s blood type.

Sample Requirement

Blood Sample Type:

Venous Blood: A venous blood sample is most commonly used for FBC. It is drawn from a vein, usually in the arm, using a needle and a collection tube.


Sample Collection:

The blood sample should be collected using aseptic techniques to avoid contamination. The use of appropriate anticoagulants is crucial to prevent blood clotting and ensure accurate results. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a common anticoagulant used for FBC.