How Genes Influence Your Satiety Response

What Is Satiety?

The sensation of fullness or reduction of appetite following a meal is the best way to define satiety. It is characterized as the feeling of well-being one experiences after eating, either physically or mentally. The sensation of satiety might be fleeting, like satisfying thirst, or it can linger for a while, like the feeling of fullness following a meal.

The nutrients in the food or drink you’re ingesting determine your level of satiety. You might feel full after consuming anything sugary, like a soft drink, but hunger usually sets in soon after. Though, the feeling of contentment often lasts longer if you combine a sweet drink with a protein-rich sandwich or other full items. This is so that, in contrast to other nutrients like proteins or the starch in bread, sugar in the liquid state is more readily absorbed and digested by the body. The sense of fullness or satisfaction lasts longer because these foods take longer to digest. Including fats in your meal results in fullness that lasts longer. Compared to proteins and carbs, your body takes longer to digest and absorb fats.

How full you feel can influence how much and when you eat next.

Genetics and Satiety

Energy expenditure, metabolic rate, and body fat accumulation are all regulated by genes. Certain DNA changes may affect how full you feel after eating.

DRD2 Gene

The D2 subtype of the dopamine receptor is produced according to instructions carried by the DRD2 gene. Under normal circumstances, dopamine lowers appetite and increases fullness when it binds to the receptor. Reduced levels of this receptor due to gene changes may cause binge eating or excessive eating.

MC4R Gene

The melanocortin 4 receptor is made according to instructions in the MC4R gene. After a meal and when your stomach is full, this receptor sends signals telling you to stop eating. This receptor is blocked when you are hungry, which increases your appetite. It has been discovered that changes to this gene are linked to obesity.

FTO Gene

The FTO gene provides instructions for making proteins linked to obesity and fat mass. Increased hunger and increased energy intake may result from changes in this gene.

Non-Genetic Factors That Influence Satiety

Factors that influence satiety include:

  • The portion sizes
  • Emotional state
  • Variety of foods and drinks
  • The social situation around eating a meal including the number of people and type of occasion
  • Physical activity levels
  • Palatability of the meal

Early satiety is more common in women than men.


With aging, less food is consumed. According to a study published in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, sensory-specific satiety disappears in adults over 65 and fluctuates with age. This explains why older people tend to eat unchanging diets.

Health conditions

Early satiety can result from some medical diseases such as gastroparesis, some malignancies, and cancer treatment. You may feel full more quickly if you have a medical issue that prevents your stomach from emptying completely.


To assist you limit your caloric intake and maintain a healthy weight, you might strive to increase your sensations of satiety.

  1. Incorporate protein throughout each meal. Foods high in protein help you feel more satiated and full and are beneficial for growing muscle.
  2. High-fiber foods can also speed up the impact and help you feel fuller more quickly. Consume fiber-rich foods. Some foods high in fiber include fruits, vegetables, wholegrain bread, cereals, and veggies.
  3. To control your fat consumption and minimize the energy density of your diet, choose lower-fat versions of some items. Calorie content or energy content per gram of food is known as energy density.
  4. Eat slowly and chew your food thoroughly. You may feel fuller after chewing your food for a longer period of time.
  5. Avoid becoming distracted when eating. Pay closer attention to what you eat. Additionally, it may make you feel more full.
  6. Limit your consumption of calorie-dense beverages like soft drinks. They make you feel less full and up your calorie consumption.
  7. Alcoholic drinks contain a lot of calories and stimulate your appetite. You tend to eat more after consuming alcohol. Try to cut down on alcohol consumption if you want to manage your weight.

Published by: Dr. Z-


You might also enjoy